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(Only Virginia was larger, until its northwestern counties withdrew to form the separate state of West Virginia in 1863.) As both an Atlantic seaboard state and a Deep South state, Georgia played a particularly crucial role in the secession crisis and the formation of the Confederacy.It had the largest population and the largest number of both slaves and slaveholders of any Deep South state (and was second only to Virginia overall), and yet it had two vast geographical areas in which slavery played only a minimal part—the southeastern wiregrass and longleaf pine woods region, and the northern mountains.The colony was governed by royally appointed governors instead of a council of Trustees from 1752 to 1776, ending with the outbreak of the Revolutionary War (1775-83).colony as a refuge for the debtors who crowded London prisons; however, no such prisoners were among the initial settlers.Military concerns were a far more motivating force for the British government, which wanted Georgia (named for King George II) as a buffer zone to protect South Carolina and its other southern colonies against incursions from Florida by the Spanish, Britain's greatest rival for North American territory.The human history of Georgia begins well before the founding of the colony, with Native American cultures that date back to the Paleoindian Period at the end of the Ice Age, nearly 13,000 years ago. These unique environmental zones drew a variety of native peoples to the region, leading to a greater diversity of early Indian cultures than was found elsewhere in the Southeast.The Clovis culture, identified by its unique projectile points, is the earliest documented group to have lived in present-day Georgia. The numerous varieties of pottery found in Georgia today testify to this diversity.explorers and settlers, the Mississippian cultures began to decline, and remnants of various chiefdoms coalesced to form larger societies, including those of the Creeks and Cherokees, both of which played significant roles in the colonial history of Georgia.
His party's documentation of various Indian chiefdoms provides some of the best descriptions about native life in Georgia prior to the eighteenth century.
Another notable first was Along with Alabama and Mississippi, Georgia was home to a significant Native American populace for much longer than any other state along the eastern seaboard.
While white Georgians were not alone in their conflicts with and ultimate removal of that native presence (in Georgia's case, of the Creeks and the Cherokees), the tragic circumstances of the Cherokees' forced exile from the state's northwestern territory in 1838-39, known as the "Trail of Tears," became a particularly potent symbol of the trauma and suffering that all such removals entailed. The construction of railroads connecting Athens, Augusta, Macon, and Savannah was another important development in Georgia during the 1830s.
Georgia also had the distinction of being the only southern state challenged over Indian sovereignty in a U. Atlanta, originally named Terminus, was founded in 1837 as the end of the rail system's line and subsequently grew into one of the South's principal cities.
By the 1850s the state claimed more miles of rail lines than did any of its southern neighbors, positioning Georgia as an important home front during the Civil War (1861-65)."Empire State of the South," as an increasingly industrialized Georgia had come to be known, was the second-largest state in area east of the Mississippi River.
Georgia became the fifth state to secede from the Union, on January 19, 1861, yet the state's geographical diversity and the dominance of its nonslaveholding white populace made its selection of delegates to the 1861 secession convention one of the most divided (in terms of delegates for and against secession) within the first wave of southern states to leave the Union.